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    小学英语语法知识 小学英语语法总结

    2019-04-26 09:48

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      今天,天津新东方学校小编针对小学英语语法的知识进行了总结,知识点可能不全,但小编已经尽力了。希望今天所总结的知识能帮助你更好的学习小学英语语法的相关知识!
      
      小学英语语法:现在进行时
      
      1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。
      
      2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be动词ing。
      
      3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。
      
      4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句。
      
      5.现在进行时的非凡疑问的基本结构为:
      
      疑问词不达意be主语动词ing?
      
      但疑问词当主语时其结构为:
      
      疑问词不达意be动词ing?
      
      动词加ing的变化规则
      
      1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking
      
      2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making,taste-tasting
      
      3.假如末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running,s-sping
      
      小学英语语法:可数名词
      
      可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。指一个人或一件事物时,用单数形式;指两个或多个人或事物时用复数形式。名词由单数形式变成复数形式的规则如下:
      
      1. 一般的名词词尾直接加-s 。如:
      
      book → books room → rooms
      
      house → houses day → days
      
      2. 以s, ss, ch, sh, x 结尾的名词,在词尾加-es 。如:
      
      bus → buses glass → glasses
      
      watch → watches
      
      dish → dishes box → boxes
      
      3. 以"辅音字母+y"结尾的名词,要先将y改为i再加-es。如:
      
      city → cities body → bodies
      
      factory → factories等等。
      
      4. 以f 或fe 结尾的名词,要将f或fe改为v再加-es。如:
      
      half → halves leaf → leaves
      
      knife → knives wife → wives
      
      5. 特例 [悄悄话:特例常???,要记住。]
      
     ?、?child → children
      
     ?、?man → men woman → women
      
      policeman → policemen
      
      (规律:man → men)
      
     ?、?tomato → tomatoes
      
      potato → potatoes
      
      [悄悄话: 初中英语以o 结尾的名词变复数时只有这两个词加-es,其余的当然加-s喽!如:photo → photos ]
      
     ?、?foot → feet tooth → teeth
      
      [悄悄话: oo变成ee。]
      
     ?、?sheep, Chinese, Japanese单、复数同形 [悄悄话:变复数时词形不变。]
      
     ?、?people单数形式表示复数意义,要求谓语动词用复数; people的复数形式peoples通常指"多个民族"。
      
      小学英语语法: 不可数名词
      
      1. 不可数名词没有复数,当它作句子的主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:
      
      The food is very fresh. 食品很新鲜。
      
      2. 有的不可数名词也可以作可数名词,有复数形式,但他们的意义往往发生变化。如:
      
      water (水) → waters (水域)
      
      orange (橘汁) → oranges (橘子)
      
      3. 很多的不可数名词表示泛指时为不可数,表示种类时就可数,但意义大多不发生变化。如:
      
      fruit → fruits food → foods
      
      fish → fishes hair → hairs
      
      用所给名词的适当形式填空。
      
      1. How many________(sheep) are there on the hill?
      
      2. There is some________(food) in the basket.
      
      3. The baby has only two________(tooth) now.
      
      4. There is a lot of________(water) in the bottle.
      
      5. There are five________(people ) in his family.
      
      6. Let's take________(photo), OK?
      
      7. I have lots of________(tomato) here.
      
      8. The________(leaf) on the tree turn-yellow.
      
      9. The________(child) are playing games
      
      on the playground now.
      
      10. Their________(dictionary) look new.
      
      11. I see you have a few white________(hair).
      
      12. They are________(woman) doctors.
      
      13. Can you give me some bottles of ____ (orange), please?
      
      14. There are many________(fox) in the picture.
      
      15. I would like some apple________(juice). I am very thirsty.
      
      小学英语语法:连词的用法
      
      1. 和我不一样,她对英语很精通。
      
      错误用法: Different from me she is proficient in English.
      
      正确用法: Unlike me she is proficient in English.
      
      2. 莫妮卡,借我点钱吧,比方说500美元。
      
      错误用法: Lend me some money for instance 500 dollars Monika.
      
      正确用法: Lend me some money say 500 dollars Monika.
      
      3. 去年夏天我本想去欧洲,但费用太高于是放弃了。
      
      错误用法: I wanted to go to Europe last summer but it was too expensive so I gave up to go.
      
      正确用法: I wanted to go to Europe last summer but it was too expensive so I gave up the idea.
      
      4. 我就是这样做的。
      
      错误用法: This is the way how I did it.
      
      正确用法: This is how I did it. or This is the way I did it.
      
      5. 我来这儿的路上遇到了交通事故,所以迟到了。
      
      错误用法: There was a traffic accident on my way here. It is why I was late.
      
      正确用法: There was a traffic accident on my way here. That is why I was late.
      
      小学英语语法:一般疑问句
      
      表示疑问,一般回答只有两种可能Yes,……或No,……句中没有疑问词。
      
      如何将一个肯定的陈述句改为否定句:
      
      1.看句中有无be动词,如有,把be动词提到句首即可。
      
      2.看句中有无情态动词,如有,把情态动词提到句首即可。
      
      3.如上述二者都没有,就应把助动提到句首。分四个步骤:
      
      (1)肯定陈述句中本来是没有助动词的,要加上去,位置在主语(某人或某物)后,动词前。
      
      (2)确定助动词用do、does还是did,根据句中动词,动词是原形的助动词就用do,动词是第三人称单数的助动词就用does,动词用过去式的助动词就有did。
      
      (3)把助动词后提到句首。
      
      (4)原句中动词假如发生变化就要恢复成原形。
      
      强调一点,有some的要考虑是否要用any。
      
      小学英语语法:冠词和数词
      
      冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词,另一种是不定冠词,还有一种是零冠词。
      
      不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e],而an则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。
      
      1) 表示"一个",意为one;指某人或某物,意为a certain。
      
      A Mr. Ling is waiting for you.
      
      2) 代表一类人或物。
      
      A knife is a tool for cutting with.
      
      Mr. Smith is an engineer.
      
      3) 词组或成语。
      
      a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / all of a sudden
      
      ★冠词的用法
      
      冠词是虚词,放在名词之前,用来说明名词指的人或事物。冠词有两种。
      
      A(an)叫不定冠词,the叫定冠词。A用在辅音之前,an用在元音之前。
      
      1. 不定冠词的用法
      
      (1) a和an均用在单数名词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如:
      
      John is a student.
      
      Mary is an English teacher.
      
      (2) 指某一类人或事物中的任何一个。例如:
      
      A steel worker makes steel.
      
      Pass me an apple, please.
      
      (3) 指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或和物。例如:
      
      A student wants to see you.
      
      A girl is waiting for you outside.
      
      (4) 表示“每一”的意思,相当于every。例如:
      
      Take the medicine three times a day.
      
      They go to see their parents once a week.
      
      ★定冠词用法
      
      (1) 特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。例如:
      
      The book on the desk is an English dictionary.
      
      Beijing is the capital of China.
      
      (2) 指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或事物。例如:
      
      Open the door, please.
      
      Jack is in the library.
      
      (3) 上文提到过的人或事物。例如:
      
      Yesterday John’s father bought him a new bike. The bike cost him 200 yuan.
      
      (4) 表示世界上独一无二的事物。例如:
      
      The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
      
      (5) 用在序数词和形容词最高级之前。例如:
      
      Shanghai is the biggest city in China.
      
      January is the first month of the year.
      
      (6) 用在某些形容词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如:
      
      The nurse is kind to the sick.
      
      We should take good care of the old.
      
      (7) 用在某些专有名词之前和某些习惯用语中。例如:
      
      the Great Wall, the Summer palace, in the morning, in the open air等。
      
      (8) 用在姓氏复数之前,表示“某某一家人”,“某某夫妇”。例如:
      
      the Browns, the whites等。
      
      ★不用冠词的情况
      
      (1) 某些专有名词,抽象名词和物质名词前一般不用冠词。例如:
      
      China, Canada, Japanese, glass, water, love等。
      
      (2) 名词前已有作定语用的this, that, my, your, whose, some, any, no, each, every等代词时,不用冠词。例如:
      
      That is my cap.
      
      I have some questions.
      
      Go down this street.
      
      (3) 复数名词表示一类人或事物时,不用冠词。
      
      They are workers.
      
      We are students.
      
      (4) 称呼语前不用冠词,表示头衔和职务的名词前也不加冠词。例如:
      
      I don’t feel well today, Mother.
      
      Bush was made president of the U.S.
      
      (5) 三餐饭的名称前,球类活动,学科和节目名词前,常不用冠词。例如:
      
      I have lunch at home.
      
      He often plays football after class.
      
      We have English and maths every day.
      
      (6) 在某些固定词组里,名词之前常不用冠词。例如:
      
      By air, at night, at home, go to bed, go to school, on foot, from morning till night 等。

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